If your native language is not English, please consider enlisting the help of an English-speaking colleague in preparing the text. Use a spell checker. (Referees are not favorably impressed by careless mistakes.)

Color Figures

Consider whether you wish color figures in print or whether color online only and grayscale in print will be adequate. If the article is accepted,figures submitted as color PostScript (or EPS) files will be published online in color at no extra charge to authors.

Specify Color online in captions, as appropriate, for color figures. For color online only, take care to ensure that captions and text references to the figures are appropriate for the online color and that the figure will be sufficiently clear.


Check the accuracy of your references. (Avoid broken links in the online version of the journal.)

Include the complete source information for any references cited in the abstract. (Do not cite reference numbers in the abstract. Abstracts are reprinted in various abstract journals and databases where the numerical citation is not useful.)

Number references in text consecutively, starting with [1].


Only electronic files are acceptable for a quick publication with free charge in your original submission. Do not wait until your manuscript is accepted. Acceptable formats include REVTeX (preferred), LaTeX, and MSWord and portable Document Format (PDF) or PostScript files.

Figures should be submitted separately as PostScript or EPS files only. We do not accept any other electronic formats for figures.

Submit or resubmit manuscripts in “preprint, double-spaced” format, rather than in two-column format. This is the format that is currently sent to referees and that is needed by production.

For more information, see the Information for Contributors and the Guidelines for Submission.


With your submission, include a list of possible referees who are experts on the subject matter and not your close colleagues. Please consider including younger individuals who, while possibly less well known, are sufficiently knowledgeable to be effective referees.